Ugo Bianchi, who organised the Congress of Messina of 1966 on the origins of Gnosticism, also argued for Orphic and Platonic origins. Dillon notes that Gnosticism raises questions about the development of early Christianity. Bentley Layton proposed to categorize Gnosticism by delineating which groups were marked as gnostic in ancient texts.  Gnostics considered the principal element of salvation to be direct knowledge of the supreme divinity in the form of mystical or esoteric insight. Matter-dwelling spirits. Manicheanism inherits this dualistic mythology from Zurvanist Zoroastrianism, in which the eternal spirit Ahura Mazda is opposed by his antithesis, Angra Mainyu. Jehova), is depicted as more ignorant than evil. Valentinus' students elaborated on his teachings and materials, and several varieties of their central myth are known. : What would Christianity be like if gnostic texts had made it into the Bible?  Celia Green has written on Gnostic Christianity in relation to her own philosophy. " According to Gilles Quispel, Catholicism arose in response to Gnosticism, establishing safeguards in the form of the monarchic episcopate, the creed, and the canon of holy books. The Valentinians argued that such codes were intrinsic in gnosticism, secrecy being important to ensuring proper progression to true inner understanding. After the apophatic statements, the process of the Divine in action is used to describe the effect of such a god. Gnostic Association of Anthropological, Cultural and Scientific Studies; Gnostic church; Category:Gnostic deities; Gnostic Gospels; Gnostic Mass; Gnostic Society; Template:Gnosticism; Gnosticism in modern times; Category:Gnostics; God as Chad "Broseph" Huntington; Great Architect of the Universe; Dat was min of meer gelijktijdig met andere religieuze bewegingen waarin gnosis centraal stond, zoals het hermetisme, het mandeïsme en het derde-eeuwse manicheïsme. It continued to develop in the Mediterranean and Middle East before and during the 2nd and 3rd centuries, but decline also set in during the third century, due to a growing aversion from the Catholic Church, and the economic and cultural deterioration of the Roman Empire.  This creature is concealed outside the pleroma; in isolation, and thinking itself alone, it creates materiality and a host of co-actors, referred to as archons. Greek Gospel of the Egyptians was a Gnostic gospel from around the period of 120-150 A.D. that has only been mentioned three times as existing.  The use of gnostikos in relation to heresy originates with interpreters of Irenaeus. , According to Ioan Culianu, gnosis is made possible through universal operations of the mind, which can be arrived at "anytime, anywhere". Gnosis is de kern in de religieuze overtuiging van een aantal religies die zich in de eerste eeuwen na Chr.  Like the gnostic conception of human beings imprisoned in matter, Sufi traditions acknowledge that the human soul is an accomplice of the material world and subject to bodily desires similar to the way archontic spheres envelop the pneuma.  Hermeticism is also a western Gnostic tradition, though it differs in some respects from these other groups. A 1st- or 2nd-century date of composition for the lost Greek originals has been proposed, though this is disputed; the manuscripts themselves date from the 3rd and 4th centuries. Justin Martyr identifies Menander of Antioch as Simon Magus' pupil. , The Christian heresiologists, most notably Irenaeus, regarded Gnosticism as a Christian heresy.  In the west, the teachings of the school moved into Syria, Northern Arabia, Egypt and North Africa. Radical dualism, or absolute dualism, posits two co-equal divine forces, while in mitigated dualism one of the two principles is in some way inferior to the other.  Irenaeus (died c. 202) wrote Against Heresies (c. 180–185), which identifies Simon Magus from Flavia Neapolis in Samaria as the inceptor of Gnosticism. The Gospel of Judas is a Gnostic gospel.The content consists of conversations between Jesus and Judas Iscariot.Given that it includes late 2nd century theology, it is thought to have been composed in the 2nd century by Gnostic Christians, rather than the historic Judas himself. The so-called "Codex XIII" is not a codex, but rather the text of Trimorphic Protennoia, written on "eight leaves removed from a thirteenth book in late antiquity and tucked inside the front cover of the sixth." God is commonly thought of as being beyond human comprehension.  Some of these groups existed into the Middle Ages. , Tertullian calls Paul "the apostle of the heretics", because Paul's writings were attractive to gnostics, and interpreted in a gnostic way, while Jewish Christians found him to stray from the Jewish roots of Christianity. The term is thus a central element of Gnostic cosmology.  Sethianism attributed its gnosis to Seth, third son of Adam and Eve and Norea, wife of Noah, who also plays a role in Mandeanism and Manicheanism. [note 1] Plato's use of "learned" is fairly typical of Classical texts. As we have seen, Epiphanius is one of the witnesses for the existence of a special sect called 'the gnostics', and yet Epiphanius himself seems to distinguish between these people and 'the Sethians' (Pan 40.7.5), whereas Layton treats them as both under the 'classic gnostic' category. , According to Karen King, scholars have "unwittingly continued the project of ancient heresiologists", searching for non-Christian influences, thereby continuing to portray a pure, original Christianity. Het evangelie van Thomas is een van de apocriefe evangeliën.In de Proloog wordt gesteld dat het door Judas Thomas geschreven zou zijn, met wie de apostel Tomas bedoeld wordt.. Het Thomas-evangelie werd in 1945 door twee boeren bij Nag Hammadi gevonden in een kruik, tezamen met een aantal andere koptische geschriften, de meeste met een gnostische inslag. The Quran, like Gnostic cosmology, makes a sharp distinction between this world and the afterlife. The Gospel of Thomas (second century CE) 2. To one degree or another, the Gnostic Gospels reflect these teachings. The text is not closely related to the canonical gospels and is not accepted as canonical by the Christian church. These writings had an antagonistic bias towards gnostic teachings, and were incomplete.  J. Horn and Ernest Anton Lewald proposed Persian and Zoroastrian origins, while Jacques Matter described Gnosticism as an intrusion of eastern cosmological and theosophical speculation into Christianity. Here, in 762, Manicheanism became the state religion of the Uyghur Empire.  Mandaeans revere Adam, Abel, Seth, Enos, Noah, Shem, Aram, and especially John the Baptist. , Within early Christianity, the teachings of Paul and John may have been a starting point for Gnostic ideas, with a growing emphasis on the opposition between flesh and spirit, the value of charisma, and the disqualification of the Jewish law.  James Dunn claims that in some cases, Paul affirmed views that were closer to gnosticism than to proto-orthodox Christianity. The Cathars (Cathari, Albigenses or Albigensians) were also accused by their enemies of the traits of Gnosticism; though whether or not the Cathari possessed direct historical influence from ancient Gnosticism is disputed.  Yet, a striking difference is that the canonical sayings center on the coming endtime, while the Thomas-sayings center on a kingdom of heaven that is already here, and not a future event. It was, however, almost exclusively limited to Egypt, though according to Sulpicius Severus it seems to have found an entrance into Spain through a certain Mark from Memphis. In the Apocryphon of John, this god is good in that it bestows goodness.  However, according to Islam and unlike most Gnostic sects, not rejection of this world, but performing good deeds leads to the heaven. Many of these movements used texts related to Christianity, with some identifying themselves as specifically Christian, though quite different from the Orthodox or Roman Catholic forms. This thesis is most notably put forward by Gershom Scholem (1897–1982) and Gilles Quispel (1916–2006). The discovery and translation of the Nag Hammadi library, initially completed i… Gospel of Mary(recovered in 1896) 2. Jesus and several of his apostles, such as Thomas the Apostle, claimed as the founder of the Thomasine form of Gnosticism, figure in many Gnostic texts. He is not interested in the material pleasures of the world, and is unaffected by its glamour. ontstond en waarbij de verwerving van gnosis centraal stond. Regarding the angel Christology of some early Christians, Darrell Hannah notes: [Some] early Christians understood the pre-incarnate Christ, ontologically, as an angel. ", The Religionsgeschichtliche Schule ("history of religions school", 19th century) had a profound influence on the study of Gnosticism. to the thing the art represents. Late-first century and early second century: development of Gnostic ideas, contemporaneous with the writing of the New Testament; mid-second century to early third century: high point of the classical Gnostic teachers and their systems, "who claimed that their systems represented the inner truth revealed by Jesus"; end of the second century to the fourth century: reaction by the proto-orthodox church and condemnation as heresy, and subsequent decline. 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